The fact sheets below are ordered alphabetically. In the right side menu, you can select sheets under the topics Aviation Engineering and Aviation Operations
Aviation Engineering fact sheets:
Cockpit Automation Fact sheet
Composites in Commercial Aircraft Engines Fact sheet
Damage Detection in Composites Fact sheet
Human Factors Fact sheet
Human Fatigue Fact sheet
LEAN MRO Fact sheet
Noise Reduction in Gas Turbines Fact sheet
Optimizing Runway Capacity Fact sheet
Repair of Composites Fact sheet
Safety Management System Fact sheet
STAMP Fact sheet
Sustainable Propulsion Fact sheet
Tackling the technical design characteristics of a propfan
Aviation Operations fact sheets:
Aircraft Separation Fact sheet
Airport Capacity Fact sheet
Airport Security from a Passenger’s Perspective Fact sheet
Article Cutting Labor Cost in Aviation & Maritime Industries
Article Next-Generation Airport Check-In
Article Shared Situational Awareness for CDM
Article Which Came First for LCCs
CRISP-DM Methodology: A structured approach for data mining projects
Development of Network Strategies Fact sheet
Drones Fact sheet
High Altitude Pollutants Fact sheet
i4D Fact sheet
Security US after 9/11 Fact sheet
Selectivity Fact sheet
Self-connectivity Fact sheet
Constant growth in air traffic has caused congestion in the sky and at airports. Optimising the available capacity is therefore vital. Research performed by NATS and EUROCONTROL has indicated that the physical separation between aircraft can be optimized by re-categorizing aircraft types; a project called RECAT-EU. By decreasing the distance between a leading and trailing aircraft on approach, the time between the aircraft consequently decreases as well. This increases the effective runway capacity significantly. However, in case of strong headwind conditions on approach, the groundspeed of aircraft decreases, consequently increasing the time
between landing aircraft. Research at London Heathrow Airport has indicated that in these circumstances, separating aircraft based on time-intervals (TBS) rather than distance (DBS) would reduce the impact of the strong headwind. This reduces the physical distance between aircraft, whilst maintaining the same time between landings. Besides optimising the available runway capacity, the wind related delays are also reduced by up to 50%. By using RECAT-EU, the available runway capacity is increased and TBS can be used in order to utilise the increased capacity, even in case of strong headwind conditions. In other words, both can be used as the next steps to optimise runway capacity.
Photo: Jeffrey Schäfer
transport is a fast-growing industry, and the number of flights is expected to
rise at even steeper levels during the next decade. However, available airport infrastructure
is limited, and capacity constraints pose a potential threat to accommodating
future air travel demand. The term ‘airport capacity’ is not a clear-cut
phenomenon: there are many different sub-definitions depending on point of view
adopted. Relationships between individual definitions can be categorized along three dimensions:
1. Differentiating between technical, acceptable and allowed capacity, 2. Differentiating between the steps in the passenger journey at the airport, 3. Differentiating between capacity based on period of time (hourly, seasonal and annual). In order to resolve airport congestion in a sustainable way, it is important to acknowledge that all infrastructure is part of a larger airport system and that solutions to one of the capacity definitions often negatively affect others. Photo: Daan van der Heijden
Many changes in airport security process occurred as a result of terrorist attacks. The security process is experienced in two ways by passengers. Passengers do not feel safe without security through the airport process, on the other hand security checks are experienced as most stressful part of passengers’ journey. In order to deal with these emotions, new methods as Centralized Image Processing (CIP) and CT-Scans are introduced. CIP analyze the different connected security checkpoints and a central control room through X-Rays
scanners. Suspicious luggage is de-railed to another track for inspection. As a result, passengers carrying luggage considered safe do not have to wait for passengers carrying luggage that is considered suspicious. CT-scans are applied for hand luggage. Passengers can leave liquids and electronic devices inside their hand luggage, which spares activities. Both techniques result in shorter lead-time and waiting time, with the aim to have a less stressful security process for passengers. Photo: Wikimedia
This article illustrates the changing crew management landscape of cockpit and cabin crew members in the aviation industry. It establishes a broad understanding of the current problem and compares it to historic and current developments in the maritime industry. By comparing both industries, valuable clues regarding stakeholder involvement and influence and possible future developments can be discovered. Results show that both industries are now, or have been, approaching labor cost as a controllable cost in order to reduce the total operating cost. In both industries, this is enabled by non-conclusive legislation which fails to
set strict regulation regarding labor contracts and employee nationalities. This has resulted in new employment methods on an international scale which enables companies to evade national law and reduce labor cost significantly. Attempts to stop companies from utilizing legislation outside their home country in order to reduce costs have failed to achieve their goal in the maritime industry. This provides some perspective for the aviation industry, as similar transnational bargaining platforms have recently been introduced. The effect of these initiatives is yet to be seen. Photo: Maersk
the past two decades the check-in process went through a number of major
changes, driven by the introduction of self-service technology that enabled to
separate the various elements of the complete check-in and optimise each of these
individual processes. However for airports to develop their check-in product,
it is important to have a clear
understanding of the
market requirements, which is seen as a key driver for airport process
development. Both passengers and airlines are increasingly in favour of
self-service processes, however this largely depends on a number of factors
including personal technological readiness, and the (perceived) ease of use and
Photo: Brussels Airport Company
There is a demand for an enhancement in the collaborative decision making process at airports. To enable this increased collaboration, shared situational awareness is required. This enables adequate decision making in complex systems such as airports. To research this subject, the question “What are the specifics of developing shared situational awareness in airport systems?” is asked. It is concluded that awareness is formed by sharing
relevant information on a system wide scale. By identifying the most disruptive factors for airport operations and embedding these in an information system that provides timely and accurate information of each factors’ status, the shared information enables stakeholders to improve the performance of the airport system as a whole and to make more efficient use of available infrastructure and slots.
Photo: Jeffrey Schäfer
Due to hybridisation, the airline sector is no longer a binary world consisting of low-cost carriers (LCCs) and network carriers. LCCs are adjusting their models to the prevailing market conditions. In order to gain higher yields, LCCs have started to attract business passengers by offering bundled fares, operating from primary airports, and the revaluation of the
product by business passengers themselves. Furthermore, secondary airport routes are saturating, making a move to primary airports inevitable. Next to gaining higher yields and secondary airport route saturation, LCCs are shifting from secondary to primary airports in order to capture slots and market share at congested airports. Photo: pilootenvliegtuig.nl
In aviation, modern aircraft have become increasingly reliant on cockpit automation to provide a safe and efficient flight. It has provided aircraft with increased passenger comfort, improved flight path control, reduced workload and many other advantages. However, due to cockpit automation problems concerning the human-computer interaction have risen that have led to fatal air accidents. Two main phenomena can be pointed out that cause these problems and influence aviation safety: automation bias and automation surprise. To
solve these problems, two main solutions have been proposed: revise pilot training and redefine the role of the pilot in the cockpit. To introduce and substantiate this topic, two examples are given of flight accidents that have happened due to human-cockpit automation error: Turkish Airlines flight TK1951 on route from Istanbul Atatürk to Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in 2009 and Air France flight AF447 from Rio de Janeiro Galeāo to Paris Charles de Gaulle in 2009.
Photo: Julian Hiraki
This fact sheet provides insight into the application of composite materials in aeroengines. Composites are used in aviation to replace metal components, reducing the aircraft’s weight and enabling them to fly further on less fuel. Composites consist of several layers of different materials. Combined, they bring the best properties of each material to the new
combination. Composites are increasingly used in aeroengines, and CFM International and GE Aviation with the LEAP Engine are currently leaders in this field. However, all aeroengine manufacturers are now applying composite materials, and the future will bring interesting new developments in this field.
The aviation industry continues to increasingly generate and store data. Effective use of these data could contribute to the improvement of processes in a variety of businesses. The analysis of data to identify patterns and potentially generate new, valuable knowledge is referred to ‘Data Mining’. To effectively execute data mining processes, multiple process models were developed. In today’s industry, the CRISP-DM methodology is the most commonly preferred method (Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining).
CRISP-DM describes the process of data mining along six phases: Business Understanding, Data Understanding, Data Preparation, Modelling, Evaluation, and Deployment. This method has already been used in a variety of case studies, especially aiming to improve the predictability of maintenance processes. The results of these projects, using CRISP-DM, could be used to better anticipate on predicted process times and material requirements. The use of this method has proven to be a structured, useful guideline for data mining projects, especially in terms of planning, communication, and documentation.Photo: Copyright © 2018 FINN
Composites are lighter, stronger and have more design shape freedom than aluminium. These advantages are reasons why aircraft manufacturers use more composite materials in their aircraft nowadays. Composite materials make up 50 percent of the primary structure of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner contributing to 20 – 30% less fuel consumption than today’s similarly sized airplane due to the low weight and better aerodynamics. However composites have different kinds of damage than metal structures such as micro-cracking and delamination. Current damage
detection methods are not adequate to detect these kind of damages in composites. That is why additional structural weight is necessary to provide safety at all times. To eliminate the need for additional structural weight it is necessary to have an adequate damage detection method for composite material. The Composites Fact sheet describes the properties of composites in aviation, the different sources of damage, followed by the detection methods used. Problems that are faced today are described plus future research areas. Photo: Daan van der Heijden
aviation industry revolves around three fundamental elements: political, economic and technological
developments. Since the jet age, these three elements have affected the route
system that carriers fly. For decades, the system was based on a set of
regulatory rules and restrictions. After deregulation, airlines were able to
become increasingly competitive and penetrate more markets with fewer
restrictions. A major influence has been the introduction of newer generation
aircraft improving operating and range
capabilities. In 2011, Boeing introduced the 787, a ‘hub-buster’ that opened up new thin routes and decreasing the need for hubs. Legacy carriers are increasingly offering services to secondary cities, bypassing existing hubs and reinforcing their hub by expanding their network to secondary destinations. The introduction of more efficient aircraft in relation to economic growth and urbanization may create new opportunities for airlines to operate in certain markets directly instead of via a hub. Photo: Jeffrey Schäfer
Drones have become increasingly popular in
recent years, and their number continues to grow. However, the aviation
industry puts drones in a bad light. At the same time, there are no global rules
or regulations concerning drones, and when they do exist they can be unclear
for many users. While it is true that drones are dangerous when flown close to
an aircraft, they can also be used in positive ways, such as to inspect
aircraft quickly. The commercial and technical development of drones is currently proceeding faster than legislation. These elements should find a balance to create a drone-friendly environment for all parties involved. Drones will become more popular and smarter, causing a danger to aviation if used incorrectly. Clear regulation and enforcement are required to prevent incidents and accidents.
Photo: Bas Wiggerman
The aviation industry is often associated with air pollution and climate change. Is air travel as polluting as it is portrayed to be? And what possibilities or solutions are there to mitigate the effects? Despite growth, the energy intensity shares of air transport have remained fairly unchanged since 1970. The issue is quite complex, as greenhouse gases have different effects (e.g. the emission of NOX and water vapour
have more local impacts than CO₂). A number of possibilities exist to reduce contrail cirrus cloud formation, such as re-routing and adjusting flight altitudes or scheduled times. Moreover, the use of biofuels can contribute to more sustainable aviation. However, the sustainability and the long-term effects of the production of biofuel should be further investigated and deliberated.
Photo: Sam van Gammeren
The aviation industry is growing safer every year. The lessons learned from incidents and accidents in the past have played an important role in this increase in safety. During the first half of the twentieth century, accidents could mainly be attributed to technical defects. Over the years, it became obvious that accidents could also occur when no technical defects were involved. As a result of this increased awareness, human factors have steadily grown in importance in the field of aviation safety. Human factors are currently known to be the biggest causes of aviation accidents,
responsible for 80% of all incidents. Research projects focus extensively on human factors. This may not be justifiable, given how strongly environmental factors affect how people perform. Researchers should focus less on who is to blame and approach the matter more holistically, addressing the root causes of human behaviour. The fact sheet contributes to a greater understanding of aviation accidents that are related to human limitations, external factors and incentives from the organisation.
Photo: Amazing Aviation
Human fatigue can be seen as a huge problem for aviation safety. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) estimates that fatigue contributes to twenty to thirty percent of all accidents considering all transportation types. Therefore human fatigue is a serious threat to aviation safety. Although fatigue countermeasures can be very helpful it still remains a problem. Since it poses a threat to aviation safety it should be taken seriously, which is why the aviation industry is still searching for ways to decrease the risks that are associated with human fatigue.
Scientific research at the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (AUAS) is aimed at better understanding fatigue and the effects of fatigue on the performance of aviation professionals, effective ways for the management of fatigue and developing ways to measure fatigue in a fast, easy and non-invasive manner. This fact sheet explores different facets of human fatigue in the aviation industry within the context of human factors and safety; it discusses the impact, causes and countermeasures for fatigue.
Photo: Amazing Aviation
In response to the problems caused by European airspace fragmentation, the European Commission launched its Single
European Sky initiative to unify airspace and modernize its air traffic
management system. SESAR is the technological dimension of this initiative, involving nearly 300 research and development modernization projects. This fact
sheet is about initial 4D (i4D), one of SESAR’s solutions.
the problems that are faced today are described and the objectives set by SESAR
to reduce these problems. Then the operation and technical requirements of
initial 4D are described and concluded in the implementation plans.
Photo: Amazing Aviation
Process improvement methods and LEAN in particular have become more important for the daily operation of businesses. LEAN originates from a new method of performing work with a constant focus on elimination of wastes within a production process. Research by the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences has shown that small and medium sized enterprises will benefit from applying process improvement techniques. However, this business sector is characterized
by a number of factors that complicate the application of traditional process improvement techniques. On the other hand, practice and research has shown that these companies will greatly benefit from process improvements, especially because competitiveness with large scale maintenance companies is increased. Additional research is necessary to continue the application of LEAN within this sector.
Photo: Jetstar Airways flickr.com
Noise emission from aircraft is caused by the
shape of the aircraft and the gas turbines. Aside from the fact that gas
turbine producers need to take durability in to account when designing an
engine, they also need to address noise emission. This fact sheet answers the
following question: ‘Which noise reduction techniques are used in
the current generation of gas turbines and what can be expected in the
future?’ This question will be answered through a brief introduction about gas
turbine components, and where noise arises. Techniques that reduce gas turbine noise
will be explained, as well as future developments from gas turbine
Photo: Johan van der Tuin/KLM
Eurocontrol predicts a continuous grow of air traffic. If air traffic grows as expected, airports cannot deal with the amount of traffic by 2021. Growth possibilities for European airports, like Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, are limited. However, a way to grow is to increase runway capacity. There are several ways to do that. First: let aircraft leave the runway faster after landing and decrease runway occupancy time. During some meteorological conditions, capacity can increase by separate aircraft
based on time instead of distance. Also, more wake turbulence categories can be used. Other technologies like microwave landing systems and ground based augmentation systems can increase runway capacity by allowing more aircraft to simultaneously use this equipment. If the situation at Schiphol does not change, capacity related problems are imminent. Some of the procedures and technologies can provide an outcome for these problems. Photo: virazzphotography
Over the years, composites have been introduced as the main material for new aircraft, such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the Airbus A350. Compared to currently used metals such as aluminum, composites have better properties such as more strength and stiffness compared to their density. However, composites have different kinds of damages which make certain repair methods impossible. For these damages, several repair techniques have been developed to keep the aircraft airworthy. Different aspects of the damage determine which repair technique is to be used. The current repair methods have some disadvantages and this leads to the fact that not every damage can be repaired. The Structural Repair
Manuals (SRM) contains the limits towhat extent the repair of a damage is allowed to be performed. The goal of the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) is improving repair of commercial aircraft composite structures and components, such as the usage of an extra composite plate as sealant. Furthermore, research is being done to the non-conventional machining methods, which create less heat and are more accurate. In addition, companies are currently working on improving surface treatments. Current developments in the industry are focusing more on the complete repair process instead of new repair methods, because of the strict aviation regulation concerning new equipment and methods. Photo: Boeing.com
To ensure the safety in the growing aviation sector, a systematic and up-to-date system is necessary. A Safety Management System is developed to mitigate safety risks and strive for maximum safety. It minimized the “organization” factor in accidents Safety risks must be mitigated to strive for maximum safety. A SMS consists of four parts. Safety policy and objectives ensures continuous improvement and describes methods, processes, and structures which are
necessary to meet safety objectives. Safety risk management identifies hazards and analyses risks. Safety assurance provides a feedback loop in the system and ensures the continuity of an SMS. The safety promotion components ensures that all employees in an organization are trained and aware of the SMS. All four pillars of an SMS are interrelated to each other and are required to make an SMS a success.
Photo: Amazing Aviation
This fact sheet examines the current effectiveness of US aviation security from a government perspective. New security measures were implemented after 9/11 to deal with identified bottlenecks. In terms of ‘soft-security’, an advanced version of the old and limited CAPPS system was introduced: Secure Flight. This system collects data from the government and airlines and sends it to commercial data services and a terrorist screening centre database (TSCD). This increases the chance of detecting potential terrorists and threats. In terms of ‘hard security’, new measures were introduced together with a new law
regarding baggage, along with more employees, improved screening equipment and armed and trained pilots. This research looked at three indicators to determine whether aviation security in the US improved: the number of hijackings, the number of bombings and the percentage of caught mystery guests. No commercial airline hijackings or bombings occurred since 9/11. However, the number of mystery guests successfully passing through US security is shocking: 95%. Is the US security system adequate, or is it only a matter of time until the next terrorist incident?
Now that the Airport Decree has been signed, Eindhoven Airport has official permission to continue developing and gradually take over part of Schiphol’s growing activities. Authorization has been granted for 10,000 additional airplane flights through November 2015, taking the first tangible step towards implementing the selectivity policy. This transition is required by the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment to ensure effective coordination of flight connection supply and demand. By doing so, the government aims to fully use the capacity of Schiphol Airport for
mainport-related traffic. Lelystad and Eindhoven will provide the capacity fortraffic not related to the mainport function. The
fact sheet on Selectivity explains the reasoning behind selectivity,
which goes back to the introduction of concepts such as mainport and
hub function in the 1980s. It also covers the necessity of market
regulation and the intended multi-airport system and the segmentation
suggested by the selectivity policy. The fact sheet ends with the
in-depth debate by all stakeholders on criteria for selectivity.
The concept of self-connectivity is playing an
increasing role in the development of airline connectivity. The concept is
based on passengers buying two separate tickets and creating their own transfer
at an airport. This often involves two tickets of airlines that have no
affiliation or two separate tickets of one airline that doesn’t offer
connectivity in its own network. With this concept passengers seek to fly
cheaper and/or fly a route not offered by traditional airline
networks. In this fact sheet the principle is thoroughly explained and existing examples are given. Also the potential benefits and risks for passengers and other stakeholders such as the airlines and airports are described. With this factsheet a correlation is found between the scale of low cost operations and the level of self-connectivity. These findings raise the question if self-connectivity can be a solution for airlines that want to simplify their complex operation? Photo: Jeffrey Schäfer
The STAMP model, short for Systems Theoretic Accident Modelling & Processing model, is used to analyse complex systems. The model contains multiple processes whose are connected with each other by means of a control loop as well as a feedback loop. These processes on its own contain of an operating system and
a controller, whereas the processes are connected in a hierarchical order. The higher hierarchical situated processes will guarantee the safety constraints of the lower situated processes. The safety constraints will provide the total system of a safe way of operating.
Earth’s fossil fuels are quickly becoming depleted. The aviation industry is highly dependent on these fuels, and is searching for methods to become more sustainable. Instead of kerosene as jet fuel, a variety of scientists and organisations are developing and testing revolutionary methods for future use by aircraft. Many methods are potentially suitable candidates, however some possess
characteristics, which make their large-scale application questionable. This fact sheet focuses on biofuels, electricity and hydrogen as alternatives to kerosene. In a related issue, the combustion of kerosene has a large environmental impact. Aircraft engines could be made more economical, reducing harmful emissions and lowering fuel consumption. Photo: Pixabay.com
In commercial aviation, the turbofan is the most used engine type. The propfan is a different engine type which is a combination of both the turboprop and turbofan. This engine comes either in a geared or in a direct drive configuration. Important characteristics of the propfan are the absence of the nacelle and the two counter rotating fans.
Before the propfan can be introduced to the commercial aviation industry there are challenges on several aspects that must be overcome. These challenges are related to the aircraft integration, the acoustic properties and the interaction of the pylon, fan and the air flow. Different organizations are looking for solutions to minimize the influence of these aspects. The propfan is 15% more fuel efficient compared to turbofans and it brings a reduction in both CO2 and NOX emissions. Photo: Hector Aguilar, Leon de Haan, Jerry Knuyt, and Lisa Nieuwendijk